Difference between Electric Charge and Electric Current

Definition & Difference b/w Electric Charge and Electric Current

Electric Charge Definition 

It is the fundamental property of particles including ion, atom, and molecules which may allow them to attract or repel each other when it is placed in an electrical field. There are three types positive, negative and neutral on particles.

The positive charge particle is proton and the negative charge particle is an electron. The particle which has no charge is known as the neutrons.

Define electric charge Proton, Electron, Neutron


The charge of the particle is measured in coulombs. The one proton has 1.602X10-19 Coulombs of charges and the value of one electron is equal to -1.602X10-19  Coulombs.

The charged particle placed in an electromagnetic field it experiences forces. The like charges repel each other and the opposite charge attracts each other.

Electric Current Definition 

The current is defined as the flow of electron. It is a physical quantity that can be measured easily and expressed mathematically. There are large numbers of free electrons present in the conducting material. When the voltage or electromotive force is applied across the free electron, it starts moving and induces the current in the circuit.

Definition of Current

There are two types of electric current. The one is alternating current and the other is direct current. In alternating current, the charges move in sine waveform. It completes the one whole cycle of the sine wave. We also say that the alternating current move in both directions either positive or negative. Because it completed one positive half cycle and one negative half cycle to complete the one complete cycle. Furthermore, the Alternating current flows through a long distance without producing any major distortion.

In direct current, the electron moves only in a straight path and only in one direction. The direct current does not flow on the long distance.

Differences between Charge and Current

The following are the differences between charge and current.

  1. The charge experiences a force only in an electrical field, whereas the current experience a force both in the electric field and magnetic field.
  2. The charge is the property of matter because through which the matter experiences the force of attraction or repulsion under the electric field. Whereas the current is the rate of flow of charged particles (electrons).
  3. The unit of electric charges is coulomb and the current is measured in the amperes.


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