LIGO recognized gravitational waves that structure by two dark gaps that circled one another and afterward converged to shape a greater dark gap with having huge vitality.
That dark opening has a mass around multiple times more noteworthy than our Sun.
This occasion happened around a billion light-years from Earth.
Detection of Gravitational Waves by LIGO
The merging of these black holes was extremely energetic (in a seconds the event released 50 times more energy in gravitational waves than all the stars in the entire Universe in light),
but at that time the waves that reached on earth, they were so weak to detect and change in the length of LIGO’s arms was less than a 1000th of the diameter of the core of an atom.
The first direct observation about (gravitational waves detected) was made on September 2015 and was announced by the Virgo and LIGO collaborations on 11 February 2016.
Previously, gravitational waves detected only been inferred indirectly, and so on their effect on the timing of pulsars in binary star systems.
The waveform, detected by both LIGO and Virgo observatories, matched with the predictions of general relativity for a gravitational wave generating from the inward spiral and merger of a pair of dark gaps and the consequent “ringdown” of the single coming about dark gap.
The signal was named GW150914, generating from Gravitational Wave.
It was also the first observation of a merging binary black hole, that demonstrating both the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems and the fact that such merging of stars could occur within the current age of the universe.
Detection of the First Gravitational wave
This first direct observation about the gravitational waves was reported around the world as a remarkable accomplishment for many reasons.
It was the efforts to directly prove the existence of such waves had been ongoing for over fifty years, and the waves are so small that Albert Einstein himself doubted that they could ever be detected.
The waves given off by the merger of GW150914 reached on Earth as a ripple in space-time that changed the length of a 4-km LIGO arm equal by a thousandth of the width of a proton, proportionally is equivalent to changing the distance to the nearest star outside the Solar System by one hair’s width.
The energy released by the orbiting of binary stars together and merged was immense, with the energy.
The observation confirms by the last directly undetected prediction of general relativity and corroborates its predictions of space-time disturbance in the context of large scale cosmic events (known as strong field tests) like merging of black holes.
It was also introduced as a new era of gravitational-wave astronomy, which will enable observations of violent astrophysical events that were not previously possible to direct and potentially it will allow the direct observation of the earliest history about the universe.
What is LIGO?
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is made up of two arms for gravitational wave detectors in the USA designed and operated by Caltech and MIT.
In addition the LIGO Scientific Collaboration with a thousand scientists from around the world provides support for the LIGO science from instrument development to data analysis and astronomy.
One LIGO observatory is located in Hanford, Livingston and the other in Louisiana, Washington.
We bounce the laser beams along two 4-kilometer long arms, which are at right angles to each other, and then make sure that the length of each path is equal.
A gravitational wave can change the length of the arms, but the effect is extremely small so the instruments need to be extremely very sensitive, which became possible using completely new technologies and a new interferometer concept.
What is the future for gravitational-wave science?
LIGO has finished its first observations about gravitational waves using its new “advanced” sensitivity.
It will be slowly improved over the next 5 years, making it more sensitive.
Next year it should also be joined by Virgo, a detector that placed in Italy.
There is also another detector being built underground in Japan called KAGRA.
There is also a plan for making a LIGO detector in India. The third generation of observatories such as the Einstein Telescope is under way.
Improving the worldwide network of detectors will help us to measure the properties of the signals, especially helping us figure out the position in the sky of the source of the waves.
At the same time, Pulsar Timing Arrays are taking data to observe giant black holes at the center of galaxies.
“Further in the future, there will be a space-based mission radiation body called ELISA.
This will be much bigger (100 times the size of the Earth) and look for gravitational waves signals from much more massive objects.